Electric wires are typically made of aluminum or copper. They are either bare or insulated and typically covered in a thin layer of PVC. If they have a PVC sheath, then the PVC is colored to indicate whether the wire is a neutral, ground or hot wire in your electrical installation. We discuss wire colors in its own section in this guide. Copper wires are usually covered in material we refer to as insulation. Depending on the cable insulation can range from many different materials. In ethernet cable such as riser or plenum cable you might find insulation like FEP or PE on your wires.
To create this article, volunteer authors worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has been viewed 25, times. Learn more You can often hide cords inside walls, but there are times when that option is not expedient or practical. Knowing how to cover wires allows you to reduce their unattractive appearance, prevent tangling and lower the chance you or your guests will trip over them.
Heavier fabrics, like upholstery materials, will stand up best to wear what is the meaning of gear time. Cut 2 strips of fabric 1 inch 2. Iron the crease and stitch across the center of the fold.
This provides a clean, neat finish to the ends of the wire covers. Pin the fabric strips together, with the right sides facing each other. Thread the wires or cords through the casing, scrunching the fabric to gather it along the length of the wire. Method 2 of Mark the measurements for length and width, using the top of the tube for the width. Spray the back of the paper with adhesive, and affix it to the cardboard tube.
Apply clear contact paper to the wire cover to protect it from wear, tear and spills. Method 3 of Mount the filled track from the source of the wire to the wall, continuing either to the floor or to the ceiling. If the wire conduit is not self-adhesive, use foam mounting tape to attach it. Continue mounting the conduit along the intersection of wall and floor, passing over door and window facings, until you reach the opposite end of the wire.
Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube. Protect your wire covers with iron-on vinyl to "laminate" the fabric before sewing it together.
Helpful 0 Not Helpful 1. Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0. If you choose a lighter fabric, iron heavy fusible interfacing to the wrong sides of the cut fabric to give it body. Continue assembling the wire covers as described. Submit a Tip All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published. Related wikiHows How to.
How to. Co-authors: 8. Updated: March 29, Categories: Electrical Safety. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been how to regain a lost love 25, times.
Understanding, Recognizing And Removing Cloth Wiring: Your Comprehensive Guide
Old Household, double braided rubber coated wire with cotton braid. Weather and fire resistant. E. Elevator Cable, 2 or more, Awg. Conductors, Thermoset, 3 layer cotton braided with flexible Flame retardant and Moisture Resistant Nylon jacket. For Elevator Lighting and Control in . Some old types of cloth-covered wiring use copper that is covered with rayon or cotton material and then insulated with asbestos paper, or rubberized insulation. As the cloth becomes brittle over time, the asbestos may break down and become airborne, which is extremely hazardous. Three types of wires were prepared: stainless-steel (SS), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) superelastic wires with two sizes for each ( inches and ? inches) to pass through the tube. All of the wires could easily slide through the PEEK tube without any nicedatingusa.com by: 2.
Angle Orthod 1 July ; 88 4 : — To evaluate the esthetics and frictional force of an orthodontic wire passed through a newly designed tube made of a polyether ether ketone PEEK resin.
Two types of standard PEEK tubes were prepared at 0. Color values were determined according to brightness and hues. Friction was assessed with different bracket-wire combinations, and surface roughness was determined by stereomicroscopy before and after the application of friction.
The PEEK tube showed a color difference that was almost identical to that of coated wires conventionally used in clinical practice, indicating a sufficient esthetic property. The result of the friction test showed that the frictional force was greatly reduced by passing the archwire through the PEEK tube in almost all of the archwires tested.
Use of the new PEEK tube demonstrated a good combination of esthetic and functional properties for use in orthodontic appliances. The demand for nonmetallic orthodontic materials has increased in recent years.
Accordingly, researchers have developed transparent brackets derived from ceramic-based or composite materials to improve the esthetics of orthodontic appliances. In particular, commonly used metal brackets are composed of stainless steel and have ideal frictional characteristics. For example, resin-coated wires showed friction between the bracket and the wire that was equivalent to or higher than that of the conventional metal wire. Various plastic materials have been developed for industrial use that could provide superior mechanical and thermal properties compared with conventional plastic.
These are known as engineering plastics. Superengineering plastics SEPs are widely used owing to their high mechanical strength, with improved thermal and chemical stabilities.
PEEK is a relatively new family of high-temperature thermoplastic polymers, consisting of an aromatic backbone molecular chain interconnected by ketone and ether functional groups. The demand for PEEK has increased recently for several clinical and industrial applications. In medicine, PEEK has proven to be an excellent substitute for titanium in orthopedic applications and has been used in prosthetic dentistry in the form of implants, for provisional abutment, in implant-supported bars, or as a clamp material in the field of removable dental prostheses.
In this study, PEEK was used to develop a new type of orthodontic archwire. The esthetic properties, friction between the bracket and wires, and the condition of the base surface of the bracket after friction—using different types of conventional archwires with and without the PEEK cover—were evaluated. The archwire could be easily passed through the tube without breaking the arch form by manually bending the tube into the arch form beforehand. Figure 2 shows a model of the dentition with the two types of wires passed through the tube set on the brackets; the upper teeth have a conventionally coated wire, and the lower teeth have the wire that was passed through the PEEK tube.
Visual comparison showed the good esthetics of the wire passed through the PEEK tube. Since the coating thickness of the PEEK-coated wire was approximately 0.
Tube A can accommodate a round wire up to a size of 0. Three types of wires were prepared: stainless-steel SS , cobalt-chromium Co-Cr , and nickel-titanium Ni-Ti superelastic wires with two sizes for each 0. All of the wires could easily slide through the PEEK tube without any resistance. The details of the wires tested in this study are listed in Table 1.
A pre-formed metal archwire and an archwire passed through a PEEK tube, which covers the wire up to the mesial portion of the first molar bracket. Color measurements were made with reference to previously reported methods.
The measurements of the shade guides were made with reference to the bracket position FA point in orthodontic treatment.
The color values of the wires and shade guides were measured 10 times for each sample, and the average values were recorded. The color was assessed as a quantitative rectangular coordinate system to allow for objective color measurement, which adequately represented the visual perception of color differences.
The SS plate with the bracket was attached to the friction-testing device, and a 5-cm segment of wire obtained from the posterior straight portions of the archwires was then fixed to each part ligated to the conventional bracket using an elastomeric module TP elastomer, TP Orthodontics Japan, Tokyo, Japan , as shown in Figure 4 A and B.
The tube and bracket were ligated and fixed, and only the wire passing through it was able to slide, as shown in Figure 5.
The static frictional force was then determined from the load-displacement curves. Each combination of bracket and wire was measured 10 times. Friction testing device. The stainless-steel plate with the bracket was attached to the friction-testing device A: left ; a 5-cm segment of wire B: right obtained from the posterior straight portion of the archwire was tested.
Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version The mean and standard deviation of the static friction values were calculated, and the results for the covered and noncovered archwires were compared by a t -test. The static friction force values of each wire with and without covering of the PEEK tube are shown in Table 4.
There was no significant difference for the 0. All three wire types of 0. The kinetic frictional force was also decreased for each wire that showed a reduction in the static frictional force by covering with the PEEK tube Figure 6.
Friction test results for the a 0. Blue indicates no tubes, red indicates wires covered with tubes. The measured value represents the average of five experiments. The stereomicroscope images of the bracket slot taken after the friction test are shown in Figure 7 A and B. There was barely any change detected in the surface roughness of a wire covered by the PEEK tube following the friction force test.
However, in the wire not covered by the PEEK tube, several scratches were evident in the bracket slot due to contact with the wire.
During tooth movement, the friction between the bracket and the archwire is a primary concern. With this background, and considering the increasing demand for orthodontic materials with improved esthetics, an orthodontic wire was developed by preparing a standard tube using PEEK resin, which has particularly excellent mechanical properties among the known SEPs.
Consideration of the loss of force due to friction is necessary for optimal clinical tooth movement. The results of the friction test in this study showed that the frictional force was greatly reduced by passing the archwire through the PEEK tube in almost all of the archwires tested.
These results suggest that force reduction is a requirement for optimal and efficient tooth movement. The archwire should easily slide through the bracket slots to be level and align with misaligned teeth more efficiently.
Indeed, the friction test showed that the PEEK tube can result in more efficient leveling and alignment in orthodontic treatment. Although friction is related to any stage of orthodontic treatment, use of a PEEK tube can exert a strong effect in reducing friction as much as possible. In addition, the surface condition of the bracket slot was maintained in its initial state by covering the archwire with the PEEK tube.
By contrast, with conventional metal wires, as treatment progresses, continuous friction against the bracket slots results in accumulated damage, and, thus, the slot dimensions cannot maintain the definite square shape established at the start of the treatment. Plastic deformation of the bracket slot also increases the torque play. The dimensions of the slot can be maintained in the initial state by using the PEEK tube and can prevent an increase in slot play.
In current clinical orthodontic practice, orthodontic appliances are required to have high esthetic properties. In recent years, there have been several studies on a wide array of esthetic correction devices with clinical relevance. Ideally, the color of esthetic archwires should match that of the natural teeth with esthetically pleasing brackets.
However, the natural tooth color used for the design of these materials can vary substantially according to the color measurement protocols used as well as across populations according to race, gender, and age.
The recent development and commercialization of colored PEEK products is impressive. In this study, the newly developed PEEK tube showed a color difference that was almost identical to that of the coated wires that are currently used clinically.
However, in order to better approximate the natural color of the teeth, the color of the PEEK tube should be further optimized. Previous research 40 has demonstrated the high-quality physical properties of PEEK. A PEEK tube was developed as an auxiliary device to help make orthodontic treatment more efficient and to satisfy consumer esthetic demands.
The results of this study suggest that the application of PEEK to orthodontic devices is realistic and clinically meaningful. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to determine the physical properties when PEEK is processed to tube specifications.
Future development of the PEEK tube as an orthodontic appliance is expected to show excellent performance in strength, esthetics, and friction reduction. The authors acknowledge Nirei Industry Corporation for support in preparing the polyether ether ketone tube in this study. Recipient s will receive an email with a link to 'Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires covered with a polyether ether ketone tube' and will not need an account to access the content. Subject: Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires covered with a polyether ether ketone tube.
Sign In or Create an Account. User Tools. Ukraine Ukraine. Sign In. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Volume 88, Issue 4. Previous Article Next Article. Article Navigation. Research Article March 23 Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires covered with a polyether ether ketone tube Nobukazu Shirakawa ; Nobukazu Shirakawa. This Site. Google Scholar. Toshio Iwata ; Toshio Iwata. Shinjiro Miyake ; Shinjiro Miyake.
Takero Otuka ; Takero Otuka. So Koizumi ; So Koizumi. Toshitugu Kawata Toshitugu Kawata. Angle Orthod 88 4 : — Get Permissions. Cite Icon Cite.
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