Helium Name Meaning
Dec 28, · Helium gets its name from the Greek word helios, which means sun. It was discovered by Sir William Ramsay in Helium has some special properties that make it useful for many applications. Since it is an inert gas, it is used to shield objects from the regular atmosphere, such as in welding, and other corrosive environments. helium (n.) , coined from Greek helios "sun" (from PIE root *sawel-"the sun"), because the element was detected in the solar spectrum during the eclipse of Aug. 18, , by English astronomer Sir Joseph N. Lockyer () and English chemist Sir Edward Frankland (). It was not actually obtained until ; before then it was assumed to be an alkali metal, hence the ending in.
Helium is an element on the periodic table with an atomic number of 2. Helium is a noble gas, and it is the lightest in the entire group of noble gases. Helium is the second most common element heliuj the universe. Helium gets un name from the Greek word helios, which means sun. It was discovered by Sir William Ramsay in Helium has some special properties that make it useful for many applications. Since it is an inert gas, it is used to shield objects from the regular atmosphere, such as in welding, and other corrosive environments.
Helium will not solidify under normal atmospheric pressures, even how to make picture placemats absolute zero. Since it has such a low melting point temperature, it is used in many cryogenic applications. Helium is lighter than air, so it is often used to inflate objects such as balloons. It is also used for leak testing and as a cooling medium. Toggle navigation Menu. Home Dictionary Tags Substances Element. Definition - What does Helium He mean?
Corrosionpedia explains Helium He Helium gets its name from the Greek word helios, which means sun. Share this:. Related Terms. Related Articles. Does aluminum rust? Are there some anti-corrosion applications in which airless spraying is a bad idea? Why should cathodic protection yreek a coating be used together to protect against corrosion?
More of your questions answered how to use woodturning tools our Experts. Related Tags. Connect with us. Popular Resources. Foes by: Graco Inc. View Now. Sponsored by: GPT Industries. Provided by: Whxt. Download Now. Coating Failures and Defects Guide. View All Webinars. View All Downloads. Downloads provided by Corrosionpedia.
Connect with us
Practical examples. Automatically generated examples: "The CEO of Party City cited a global helium shortage as he announced on Thursday that the retail chain will close 45 of its stores this year. Slashdot, "Network Rail says helium balloons are causing delays by getting caught in overhead cables. BBC News, 17 April "The year-old model commanded attention as she knelt. Helia is a female name derived from the Greek name "Helios", the god of sun in greek mythology. It is said that Helios had a number of children and one of his daughters was named Helia. Also in some cultures Helia is defined as peach blossom. Jan 27, · 10 Helium Facts. The atomic number of helium is 2, meaning each atom of helium has two nicedatingusa.com most abundant isotope of the element has 2 neutrons. It is energetically favorable for each helium atom to have 2 electrons, which gives it a stable electron shell.
It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert , monatomic gas , the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant. Its abundance is similar to this in both the Sun and in Jupiter.
This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy per nucleon of helium-4 , with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, the vast majority of which was formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars.
Helium was first detected as an unknown, yellow spectral line signature in sunlight, during a solar eclipse in by Georges Rayet ,  Captain C. Haig,  Norman R. Janssen recorded the helium spectral line during the solar eclipse of , while Lockyer observed it from Britain.
Lockyer was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element, which he named. The formal discovery of the element was made in by two Swedish chemists, Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet , who found helium emanating from the uranium ore , cleveite , which is now not regarded as a separate mineral species but as a variety of uraninite.
Liquid helium is used in cryogenics its largest single use, absorbing about a quarter of production , particularly in the cooling of superconducting magnets , with the main commercial application being in MRI scanners. Helium's other industrial uses—as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding , and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers —account for half of the gas produced.
A well-known but minor use is as a lifting gas in balloons and airships. In scientific research, the behavior of the two fluid phases of helium-4 helium I and helium II is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics in particular the property of superfluidity and to those looking at the phenomena, such as superconductivity , produced in matter near absolute zero.
On Earth, it is relatively rare—5. Most terrestrial helium present today is created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements thorium and uranium , although there are other examples , as the alpha particles emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei. Previously, terrestrial helium—a non-renewable resource because once released into the atmosphere, it promptly escapes into space —was thought to be in increasingly short supply.
The first evidence of helium was observed on August 18, , as a bright yellow line with a wavelength of The line was detected by French astronomer Jules Janssen during a total solar eclipse in Guntur , India. On October 20 of the same year, English astronomer, Norman Lockyer , observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum, which, he named the D 3 because it was near the known D 1 and D 2 Fraunhofer line lines of sodium.
In , Italian physicist Luigi Palmieri detected helium on Earth for the first time through its D 3 spectral line, when he analyzed a material that had been sublimated during a recent eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas, liberated by sulfuric acid , he noticed a bright yellow line that matched the D 3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun. Hillebrand, however, attributed the lines to nitrogen.
In , Ernest Rutherford and Thomas Royds demonstrated that alpha particles are helium nuclei , by allowing the particles to penetrate the thin, glass wall of an evacuated tube, then creating a discharge in the tube, to study the spectrum of the new gas inside. Onnes' student Willem Hendrik Keesom was eventually able to solidify 1 cm 3 of helium in by applying additional external pressure.
In , Niels Bohr published his "trilogy"   on atomic structure that included a reconsideration of the Pickering—Fowler series as central evidence in support of his model of the atom.
In , Russian physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa discovered that helium-4 has almost no viscosity at temperatures near absolute zero , a phenomenon now called superfluidity. In , the same phenomenon was observed in helium-3 , but at temperatures much closer to absolute zero, by American physicists Douglas D. Osheroff , David M. Lee , and Robert C. The phenomenon in helium-3 is thought to be related to pairing of helium-3 fermions to make bosons , in analogy to Cooper pairs of electrons producing superconductivity.
This enabled the United States to become the world's leading supplier of helium. The goal was to supply barrage balloons with the non-flammable, lighter-than-air gas. Although the extraction process using low-temperature gas liquefaction was not developed in time to be significant during World War I, production continued.
Helium was primarily used as a lifting gas in lighter-than-air craft. During World War II, the demand increased for helium for lifting gas and for shielded arc welding. The helium mass spectrometer was also vital in the atomic bomb Manhattan Project. The government of the United States set up the National Helium Reserve in at Amarillo, Texas , with the goal of supplying military airships in time of war and commercial airships in peacetime.
Helium use in the United States in was more than eight times the peak wartime consumption. Bureau of Mines arranged for five private plants to recover helium from natural gas. For this helium conservation program, the Bureau built a mile km pipeline from Bushton, Kansas , to connect those plants with the government's partially depleted Cliffside gas field near Amarillo, Texas.
This helium-nitrogen mixture was injected and stored in the Cliffside gas field until needed, at which time it was further purified. Helium produced between and was about In , a small amount of By , commercial quantities of Grade A In the mids, a new plant in Arzew , Algeria, producing 17 million cubic meters million cubic feet began operation, with enough production to cover all of Europe's demand.
Meanwhile, by , the consumption of helium within the U. Algeria quickly became the second leading producer of helium. As of [update] , the United States National Helium Reserve accounted for 30 percent of the world's helium. Other large reserves were in the Hugoton in Kansas , United States, and nearby gas fields of Kansas and the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma.
New helium plants were scheduled to open in in Qatar , Russia, and the US state of Wyoming , but they were not expected to ease the shortage.
In , Qatar started up the world's largest helium unit,  although the Qatar diplomatic crisis severely affected helium production there. In the perspective of quantum mechanics , helium is the second simplest atom to model, following the hydrogen atom.
Helium is composed of two electrons in atomic orbitals surrounding a nucleus containing two protons and usually two neutrons. As in Newtonian mechanics, no system that consists of more than two particles can be solved with an exact analytical mathematical approach see 3-body problem and helium is no exception. Thus, numerical mathematical methods are required, even to solve the system of one nucleus and two electrons. The nucleus of the helium-4 atom is identical with an alpha particle.
High-energy electron-scattering experiments show its charge to decrease exponentially from a maximum at a central point, exactly as does the charge density of helium's own electron cloud.
This symmetry reflects similar underlying physics: the pair of neutrons and the pair of protons in helium's nucleus obey the same quantum mechanical rules as do helium's pair of electrons although the nuclear particles are subject to a different nuclear binding potential , so that all these fermions fully occupy 1s orbitals in pairs, none of them possessing orbital angular momentum, and each cancelling the other's intrinsic spin. Adding another of any of these particles would require angular momentum and would release substantially less energy in fact, no nucleus with five nucleons is stable.
This arrangement is thus energetically extremely stable for all these particles, and this stability accounts for many crucial facts regarding helium in nature.
For example, the stability and low energy of the electron cloud state in helium accounts for the element's chemical inertness, and also the lack of interaction of helium atoms with each other, producing the lowest melting and boiling points of all the elements. In a similar way, the particular energetic stability of the helium-4 nucleus, produced by similar effects, accounts for the ease of helium-4 production in atomic reactions that involve either heavy-particle emission or fusion.
Some stable helium-3 2 protons and 1 neutron is produced in fusion reactions from hydrogen, but it is a very small fraction compared to the highly favorable helium The unusual stability of the helium-4 nucleus is also important cosmologically : it explains the fact that in the first few minutes after the Big Bang , as the "soup" of free protons and neutrons which had initially been created in about ratio cooled to the point that nuclear binding was possible, almost all first compound atomic nuclei to form were helium-4 nuclei.
So tight was helium-4 binding that helium-4 production consumed nearly all of the free neutrons in a few minutes, before they could beta-decay, and also leaving few to form heavier atoms such as lithium, beryllium, or boron.
Helium-4 nuclear binding per nucleon is stronger than in any of these elements see nucleogenesis and binding energy and thus, once helium had been formed, no energetic drive was available to make elements 3, 4 and 5. It was barely energetically favorable for helium to fuse into the next element with a lower energy per nucleon , carbon.
However, due to lack of intermediate elements, this process requires three helium nuclei striking each other nearly simultaneously see triple alpha process. There was thus no time for significant carbon to be formed in the few minutes after the Big Bang, before the early expanding universe cooled to the temperature and pressure point where helium fusion to carbon was no longer possible.
All heavier elements including those necessary for rocky planets like the Earth, and for carbon-based or other life have thus been created since the Big Bang in stars which were hot enough to fuse helium itself. Helium is the second least reactive noble gas after neon , and thus the second least reactive of all elements. Because of helium's relatively low molar atomic mass, its thermal conductivity , specific heat , and sound speed in the gas phase are all greater than any other gas except hydrogen.
Helium is the least water- soluble monatomic gas,  and one of the least water-soluble of any gas CF 4 , SF 6 , and C 4 F 8 have lower mole fraction solubilities: 0. Only below its Joule—Thomson inversion temperature of about 32 to 50 K at 1 atmosphere does it cool upon free expansion. Most extraterrestrial helium is found in a plasma state, with properties quite different from those of atomic helium.
In a plasma, helium's electrons are not bound to its nucleus, resulting in very high electrical conductivity, even when the gas is only partially ionized. The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields. For example, in the solar wind together with ionized hydrogen, the particles interact with the Earth's magnetosphere , giving rise to Birkeland currents and the aurora.
Unlike any other element, helium will remain liquid down to absolute zero at normal pressures. This is a direct effect of quantum mechanics: specifically, the zero point energy of the system is too high to allow freezing. Solid helium requires a temperature of 1—1. Solid helium has a density of 0. At room temperature, this requires about , atm. Below its boiling point of 4. Below the lambda point, however, helium does not boil, and it expands as the temperature is lowered further.
Helium I has a gas-like index of refraction of 1. This may be an effect of its boiling point being so close to absolute zero, preventing random molecular motion thermal energy from masking the atomic properties. Liquid helium below its lambda point called helium II exhibits very unusual characteristics.
Due to its high thermal conductivity , when it boils, it does not bubble but rather evaporates directly from its surface. Helium-3 also has a superfluid phase, but only at much lower temperatures; as a result, less is known about the properties of the isotope.
Helium II is a superfluid, a quantum mechanical state see: macroscopic quantum phenomena of matter with strange properties. Current theory explains this using the two-fluid model for helium II. In this model, liquid helium below the lambda point is viewed as containing a proportion of helium atoms in a ground state , which are superfluid and flow with exactly zero viscosity, and a proportion of helium atoms in an excited state, which behave more like an ordinary fluid.
In the fountain effect , a chamber is constructed which is connected to a reservoir of helium II by a sintered disc through which superfluid helium leaks easily but through which non-superfluid helium cannot pass. If the interior of the container is heated, the superfluid helium changes to non-superfluid helium.
In order to maintain the equilibrium fraction of superfluid helium, superfluid helium leaks through and increases the pressure, causing liquid to fountain out of the container.
<- How to make shrimp batter for deep frying - What causes alopecia areata in women->