What does Istanbul mean?
/ ??s.t?n?b?l / a city that was the capital of Turkey until Istanbul used to be called Constantinople. His family migrated to Istanbul when he was Istanbul definition, a port in northwestern Turkey, on both sides of the Bosporus: built by Constantine I on the site of ancient Byzantium; capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Ottoman Empire; capital removed to Ankara See more.
Founded as Byzantion by Megarian colonists in BCE, and renamed as Constantinople in CE,  the city grew in size and influence, becoming a beacon of the Silk Road and one of the most important mesn in history. In the city's name was officially changed to Istanbul, an appellation Greek speakers used since the eleventh voes to colloquially refer to the city.
Over This reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was also reflected by its Ottoman nickname "Der Saadet" meaning the "gate to Prosperity" in Ottoman. The first use eglish the word "Islambol" on coinage was in during the reign of Sultan Mahmud I.
In English the stress is on the first or last syllable, but in Turkish it is on the second syllable tan. Neolithic artifacts, uncovered by archeologists at the beginning of the 21st century, indicate that Istanbul's historic peninsula was settled as far back as the 6th millennium BCE.
Modern authors have linked it to the Thracian toponym Lygosistanbbul mentioned by Pliny the Elder as an earlier name for the site of Byzantium. The history of istanbyl city proper begins around BCE,  [c] when Greek settlers from Megara established Byzantium on the European side of the Bosphorus. The settlers built an acropolis adjacent to the Golden Horn on the site of the early Thracian settlements, fueling the nascent city's economy. Constantine the Great effectively became the emperor of the whole of the Roman Empire in September As the eastern capital of the empire, the city was named Nova Roma ; most called it Constantinople, a name what does istanbul mean in english persisted what does istanbul mean in english the 20th century.
The establishment of Constantinople was one of Ebglish most lasting accomplishments, engllsh Roman power eastward as the city became a center of Greek culture and Christianity. Constantinople began to decline continuously after the end of the reign of Basil II in The Fourth Crusade was diverted from its purpose what does istanbul mean in englishand the city was sacked and pillaged by the crusaders.
The Byzantine Empire was restored, albeit weakened, in Various economic and military policies instituted by Andronikos IIsuch as the reduction of military forces, weakened the empire and left it vulnerable to attack.
Hours later, the what to cook with salsa rode to the Hagia Sophia and summoned an imam englishh proclaim the Islamic lnconverting the grand cathedral into an imperial mosque due to the city's refusal to surrender peacefully.
Following the conquest of Constantinople, [e] Mehmed II immediately set out to revitalize the city. Cognizant that revitalization would fail without the repopulation of the city, How to restore .bak file in sql server II welcomed everyone—foreigners, criminals, and runaways— showing extraordinary openness and willingness to incorporate outsiders that came to define Ottoman political culture. Social hierarchy was ignored by the rampant plague, which killed the rich and the poor alike in the sixteenth century.
The Ottoman Dynasty claimed the status of caliphate inwith Constantinople remaining the capital of this last caliphate for four centuries. A period of rebellion at the start of the 19th century led to the rise of the progressive Sultan Mahmud II and eventually to the Tanzimat period, which produced political reforms and allowed new technology to be introduced to the city. The deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April was among the major events which marked the start of the Armenian Genocide during WWI.
The Treaty of Lausanne was signed on 24 Julyand the occupation of Constantinople ended with the departure of the last forces of the Allies from the city on 4 October A wealth tax assessed mainly on non-Muslims led to the transfer or liquidation of how to fix a gas gauge stuck on full businesses owned by religious minorities.
This sudden, sharp rise in the city's population caused a large demand for housing, and many previously outlying villages and forests became engulfed into the metropolitan area of Istanbul. Istanbul is located in north-western Turkey and straddles the strait Bosporus, which provides the only passage from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean via the Sea of Marmara. Large sections of Caddebostan sit on areas of landfill, increasing the total area of the city to 5, square kilometers 2, sq mi.
Despite the myth that seven doe make up the city, there are in fact more than 50 hills within the city limits. Istanbul's tallest hill, Aydos, is metres 1, ft high. The nearby North Anatolian Fault is responsible for much earthquake activity, although it doesn't physically pass through the city itself.
Istanbul's weather is strongly influenced by the Sea kean Marmara to the south, and the Black Sea to the north. This moderates temperature swings and produces a mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation. Because of its hilly topography and maritime influences, Istanbul exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates. Lake-effect snow is common and forms when cold air, upon contact with the Black Sea, develops into moist and unstable air that ascends to form snow squalls along the lee shores of the Black Sea.
Climate change in Turkey may cause more urban heatwaves,  droughts,  storms,  and flooding. The Fatih district, which was named after Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Turkish : Fatih Sultan Mehmedcorresponds to what was, until the Ottoman conquest inthe whole of the city of Constantinople today is the capital district and called the historic peninsula of Istanbul on the southern shore of the Golden Hornacross the medieval Genoese citadel of Galata on the northern shore.
The Genoese fortifications in Galata were largely demolished in the 19th century, leaving only the Galata Towerto make way for the northward expansion of the city. But in the second half of the 20th century, the Asian side experienced major urban growth; the late development of this part of the city led to better infrastructure and tidier urban planning when compared with most other residential areas in the city. Istanbul does not have a primary urban park, but it has several green areas.
Emirgan Park is known for its diversity of plants and an annual tulip festival is held there how to check outstanding loan amount in hdfc bank Ehglish during the summer among Istanbulites is Belgrad Forestspreading across 5, hectares 14, acres at the northern edge of the city. The forest originally supplied water to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive.
Istanbul is primarily known for its Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, and despite its development as a Turkish city sincecontains both Christian and ancient monuments.
There are three ancient monuments in the city. Built of porphyry, 35 m ft high, it came from Heliopolis, erected in CE to inaugurate the new Byzantine capital. There are traces of the Byzantine era throughout the city, from ancient churches that istanbull built over early Christian meeting places like Chora ChurchHagia Irene to public places like the Hippodrome, the Augustaion. It is the Hagia Sophia, however, that fully conveys the period of Constantinople as a city without istanbkl in Christendom.
Hagia Sophiatopped by a dome 31 meters ft in diameter over a square space defined by four arches, is the pinnacle of the Byzantine architecture. Over the next four centuries, the Ottomans transformed of Istanbul's urban landscape with a vast building scheme building towering mosques and ornate palaces.
Mehmet II built the original palace as his main residence and the seat of government. In the following centuries, and especially after the Tanzimat reforms, Ottoman architecture was supplanted by European styles. Sincethe municipal boundaries of Istanbul have been coincident istanbuo the boundaries of its province. The current city structure can be traced back to the Tanzimat period of reform in the 19th century, before which Islamic judges and imams led the city under the auspices of the Grand Vizier.
Following the model of French cities, this religious system was replaced by a mayor and a citywide council composed of representatives of the confessional groups millet across the city.
Small settlements adjacent to major population centers in Turkey, including Istanbul, were merged into their respective primary cities englush the early s, resulting in metropolitan municipalities.
The Municipal Council is responsible for citywide issues, including managing the budget, istanvul civic infrastructure, and overseeing museums and major cultural centers. District councils are chiefly responsible for waste management and construction projects within their respective districts. They each maintain their own budgets, although the metropolitan mayor reserves foes right to review district decisions.
One-fifth of all district council members, including the district mayors, also represent their districts in the Municipal Council. With the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Istanbul Province having equivalent jurisdictions, few responsibilities what does istanbul mean in english for the provincial government. Mirroring the executive committee at the municipal level, the Provincial Executive Committee includes a secretary-general and leaders sitanbul departments that advise the Provincial Parliament.
Throughout most of its history, Maen has ranked among the largest cities in the world. By CE, Constantinople had somewhere betweenandpeople, edging out its predecessor, Rome, for the world's largest city. It never returned to being the world's largest, but remained the largest city in Europe from towhen it was surpassed by London. The Turkish Statistical Institute estimates that the population of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality was 15, at the end ofhosting 19 percent of the country's population.
Istanbul ranks as the seventh-largest city proper in the world, and the second-largest urban agglomeration in Europe, after Moscow. The high population growth mirrors an urbanization trend across the country, as the second and third fastest-growing OECD metropolises are the Turkish cities of Izmir and Ankara.
Istanbul experienced especially rapid growth during the second half of the 20th century, with its population increasing tenfold between and Istanbul's foreign population with a residence permit increased dramatically, from 43, in  toin Istanbul has been a cosmopolitan city throughout much of its history, but it has become more homogenized since the end of the Ottoman era.
Arabs form the city's on of the largest ethnic minorities, with an estimated population of more than 2 million. With estimates ranging from 2 to 4 million, Kurds form the other largest ethnic minority in Istanbul. While Istanbul's Greek population was exempted from the population exchange with Greece, changes in tax status and the anti-Greek pogrom prompted thousands to leave. Istanbul became one of the world's most important Jewish centers in the 16th and 17th century.
Sephardic Jews settled in the city after their expulsion from Spain and Portugal in and Politically, Istanbul is seen as the most important administrative region in Turkey.
More recently, Istanbul and many of Turkey's metropolitan cities are following a trend away from the government and their right-wing ideology. In andlarge-scale anti-AKP government protests began in Istanbul and spread throughout the nation. The first government defeat in Istanbul occurred in the constitutional referendumwhere Istanbul voted 'No' by The AKP government had supported a 'Yes' vote and won the vote nationally due to high support in rural parts of the country.
Similar trends and electoral successes for the opposition were also replicated in AnkaraIzmirAntalyaMersinAdana and other metropolitan areas of Turkey. Administratively, Istanbul is divided into 39 districts, more than any other province in Turkey.
For the purpose of parliamentary elections, Istanbul is divided into three electoral districts ; two on the European side and one on the Asian sideelecting 28, 35 and 35 MPs respectively.
Istanbul had the eleventh-largest economy among the world's urban areas inand is responsible for 30 percent of Turkey's industrial output,  31 percent of GDP,  and 47 percent of tax revenues. Istanbul, which straddles the Bosporus strait, houses international ports that link Europe and Asia. The Bosporus, providing the only passage from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, is the world's busiest and narrowest strait used for international navigation, with more than million tons of oil passing through how to get a flat stomach for women fast each year.
Shipping is a significant part of the city's economy, with Istanbul doew been an international banking hub since the s,  and is home to the only stock exchange in Turkey. Borsa Istanbul was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in Istanbul was historically known as a cultural hub, but its cultural scene stagnated after the Turkish Republic shifted its focus toward Ankara.
By the end of the 19th century, Istanbul had established itself as a regional artistic center, with Turkish, European, and Middle Eastern artists flocking to the city. Despite efforts to make Ankara Turkey's cultural heart, Istanbul had the country's primary institution of art until the s.
Coinciding with this cultural reemergence was the establishment of the Istanbul Festival, which began showcasing a variety of art from Turkey and around the world in With its focus now solely on music and dance, the Istanbul Festival has been known as the Istanbul International Music Hwat since Istanbul has numerous shopping centersfrom the historic to the modern.
The Grand Bazaarin operation sinceis among the world's oldest and largest covered markets.
Jan 28, · In that sense, Greeks called this place Istanbul (pronounced [is tim ?bolin]) meaning “to the city”. Just what we say to go to the city or town for purchases. 54 views · Answer requested by. Istanbul (n.) the largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church;. The noun ISTANBUL has 1 sense: 1. the largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
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Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Istanbul used to be called Constantinople. His family migrated to Istanbul when he was She was travelling from Istanbul to Ankara. He is a political scientist at Bilgi University in Istanbul. There are many minarets on the Istanbul skyline.
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