What Was Apartheid in South Africa?
Feb 11, · Apartheid (“apartness” in the language of Afrikaans) was a system of legislation that upheld segregationist policies against non-white citizens of South Africa. After the . Sep 02, · Apartheid is an Afrikaans word that means "separation." It is the name given to the particular racial-social ideology developed in South Africa during the twentieth century. At its core, apartheid was all about racial segregation.
A fourth category—Asian Indian and Pakistani —was later added. Although racial segregation had long been in practice there, the apartheid name was first used about to describe the racial segregation policies embraced by the white minority government. Apartheid dictated where South Africans, on the basis of their race, could live and work, the type of education they could receive, and whether they what is the throat of a volcano vote.
Events in the early s marked the end of legislated apartheid, but the social and what is an apartheid in south africa ia remained deeply entrenched. Soth apartheid acts dictated where South Africans, on the basis of their racial classification, could live and work, the type of education they siuth receive, whether they could vote, whag they could associate with, and which segregated public facilities they could use.
Afrrica the administration of the South African apattheid F. All-race national elections held in resulted in a black majority government led by prominent anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela of the African National Congress party.
Although these developments marked the end of legislated apartheid, the social and economic effects of apartheid remained deeply entrenched in South African society. During this time, apartheid policy determined where South Africans, on the basis sokth their race, could live and work, the type of education they could receive, whether they could vote, who they could associate with, and which segregated public facilities they could use. Racial segregation, sanctioned by law, was widely practiced in South Africa beforebut the National Partywhich gained office that year, extended the policy and gave it the name apartheid.
The Group Areas Act of established residential and business sections in urban areas for each race, and members of other races were barred from living, operating businesses, or owning land in them. Other laws forbade most social contacts between the races, authorized segregated public facilities, established separate educational standards, restricted each race to certain types of jobs, curtailed nonwhite labour unions, and denied nonwhite participation through white representatives in the national government.
The Bantu Homelands A;artheid Act of made every Black South Africx, irrespective of actual residence, a citizen of one of the Bantustans, thereby excluding Blacks from the South African body politic.
Four of the Bantustans were granted independence as republics, and the remaining had varying degrees of self-government; but all remained dependent, both politically and economically, on South Africa.
The dependence of the South Afrjca economy on nonwhite labour, though, made ih difficult for the government to carry out this policy of separate development. Although the government had the power to suppress virtually all criticism of its policies, there was always some opposition to apartheid within South Africa. Black African groups, with the support of some whites, held demonstrations and strikes, and there were many instances of violent protest and of sabotage.
An attempt to enforce Wfrica language requirements for Black African students led to the Soweto riots in Apartheid also received international censure. South Africa was forced to withdraw from the Commonwealth in when it became apparent that other member countries how long to cook 4 baked potatoes in microwave not accept its racial policies.
In a more fundamental shift of policy, however, the government of South African president F. Systematic racial segregation remained deeply entrenched in South African society, though, and continued on a de facto basis.
A new constitution that enfranchised Blacks and other racial groups was adopted in and took effect in These developments marked the end of legislated apartheid, though not of its entrenched social and economic effects.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. A sign at a beach in Durban, South Africa, induring the apartheid era. Legislated apartheid ended in the early s. Top Questions. National Party. Nelson Mandela. Bantustan territories also known as Black homelands or Black states in South Africa during the apartheid era.
Study the history of apartheid in Cape Town and the imprisonment of rebels in the Robben Island, most notably Whar Mandela. Learn about the history of apartheid in Cape Town, South Africa, and nearby Robben Island, where a number of black activists, most notably Nelson Mandela, were ij. The wounded being tended to after police opened fire on an antiapartheid demonstration in Sharpeville, South Africa, Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The Hertzog what is an apartheid in south africa achieved a major goal how to connect yahoo mail to outlook 2013 when the British Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster, which removed the last vestiges of British legal authority over Ie Africa.
Three years later the South African…. After its victory the National Party rapidly consolidated its control over the state aparthedi in subsequent years won a series of elections with increased majorities.
By the electorate…. These transformations were not lost on white political leaders. On the contrary, sluth future of Johannesburg and other South African cities became the central issue in the national election. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Xfrica address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
Apartheid, in South Africa, a policy that governed relations between the white minority and nonwhite majority during the 20th century. It sanctioned racial segregation and political and economic discrimination against nonwhites. Translated from the Afrikaans meaning 'apartness', apartheid was the ideology supported by the National Party (NP) government and was introduced in South Africa in Apartheid called for the separate development of the different racial groups in South Africa. Apr 16, · Note that Apartheid was a political and social system in South Africa while it was under white-minority rule. It is segregation which is for the most part dependent on skin color. This was utilized in the 20th century, from to the mids. The word politically-sanctioned racial segregation signifies “apartness” in Afrikaans.
Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid , which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid , which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised , ethnically diverse slave population.
The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, , followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of , which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.
Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century. Between and , the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress ANC , the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. Apartheid is an Afrikaans  word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart", literally " apart -hood " from Afrikaans "-heid".
Under the Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law  and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy. The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire.
In the days of slavery , slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. In the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi designated as Hottentots moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes.
To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in , which effectively changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. This was followed by Ordinance 3 in , which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa that was little different from slavery.
The various South African colonies passed legislation throughout the rest of the nineteenth century to limit the freedom of unskilled workers , to increase the restrictions on indentured workers and to regulate the relations between the races. In the Cape Colony , which previously had a liberal and multi-racial constitution and a system of franchise open to men of all races , the Franchise and Ballot Act of raised the property franchise qualification and added an educational element, disenfranchising a disproportionate number of the Cape's non-white voters,  and the Glen Grey Act of instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes limited the amount of land Africans could hold.
In the South African Republic brought in two pass laws requiring Africans to carry a badge. Only those employed by a master were permitted to remain on the Rand and those entering a "labour district" needed a special pass. In the General Pass Regulations Act denied blacks the vote and limited them to fixed areas,  and in the Asiatic Registration Act of the Transvaal Colony required all Indians to register and carry passes. The commission concluded that integration would bring about a "loss of personality" for all racial groups.
South Africa had allowed social custom and law to govern the consideration of multiracial affairs and of the allocation, in racial terms, of access to economic, social, and political status. The rapid economic development of World War II attracted black migrant workers in large numbers to chief industrial centres, where they compensated for the wartime shortage of white labour.
However, this escalated rate of black urbanisation went unrecognised by the South African government, which failed to accommodate the influx with parallel expansion in housing or social services. Whites reacted negatively to the changes, allowing the Herenigde Nasionale Party or simply the National Party to convince a large segment of the voting bloc that the impotence of the United Party in curtailing the evolving position of nonwhites indicated that the organisation had fallen under the influence of Western liberals.
Afrikaner nationalists proclaimed that they offered the voters a new policy to ensure continued white domination. Segregation had thus been pursued only in major matters, such as separate schools, and local society rather than law had been depended upon to enforce most separation; it should now be extended to everything. Apartheid was to be the basic ideological and practical foundation of Afrikaner politics for the next quarter of a century.
The National Party's election platform stressed that apartheid would preserve a market for white employment in which nonwhites could not compete. On the issues of black urbanisation , the regulation of nonwhite labour, influx control, social security , farm tariffs, and nonwhite taxation the United Party's policy remained contradictory and confused.
Smuts' reluctance to consider South African foreign policy against the mounting tensions of the Cold War also stirred up discontent, while the nationalists promised to purge the state and public service of communist sympathisers. First to desert the United Party were Afrikaner farmers, who wished to see a change in influx control due to problems with squatters , as well as higher prices for their maize and other produce in the face of the mineowners' demand for cheap food policies.
Always identified with the affluent and capitalist, the party also failed to appeal to its working class constituents. Barring the predominantly English-speaking landowner electorate of the Natal , the United Party was defeated in almost every rural district.
Its urban losses in the nation's most populous province, the Transvaal , proved equally devastating. When the National Party came to power in , there were factional differences in the party about the implementation of systemic racial segregation. The " baasskap " white domination or supremacist faction, which was the dominant faction in the NP, and state institutions, favoured systematic segregation, but also favoured the participation of black Africans in the economy with black labour controlled to advance the economic gains of Afrikaners.
A second faction were the "purists", who believed in "vertical segregation", in which blacks and whites would be entirely separated, with blacks living in native reserves, with separate political and economic structures, which, they believed, would entail severe short-term pain, but would also lead to independence of white South Africa from black labour in the long-term. A third faction, which included Hendrik Verwoerd , sympathised with the purists, but allowed for the use of black labour, while implementing the purist goal of vertical separation.
NP leaders argued that South Africa did not comprise a single nation, but was made up of four distinct racial groups: white, black, Coloured and Indian. Such groups were split into 13 nations or racial federations. White people encompassed the English and Afrikaans language groups; the black populace was divided into ten such groups. The state passed laws that paved the way for "grand apartheid", which was centred on separating races on a large scale, by compelling people to live in separate places defined by race.
This strategy was in part adopted from "left-over" British rule that separated different racial groups after they took control of the Boer republics in the Anglo-Boer war. This created the black-only " townships " or "locations", where blacks were relocated to their own towns. In addition, "petty apartheid" laws were passed. The principal apartheid laws were as follows. The first grand apartheid law was the Population Registration Act of , which formalised racial classification and introduced an identity card for all persons over the age of 18, specifying their racial group.
The second pillar of grand apartheid was the Group Areas Act of This Act put an end to diverse areas and determined where one lived according to race. Each race was allotted its own area, which was used in later years as a basis of forced removal. The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act of prohibited marriage between persons of different races, and the Immorality Act of made sexual relations with a person of a different race a criminal offence.
Under the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of , municipal grounds could be reserved for a particular race, creating, among other things, separate beaches , buses , hospitals , schools and universities.
Signboards such as "whites only" applied to public areas, even including park benches. Further laws had the aim of suppressing resistance, especially armed resistance, to apartheid. The Suppression of Communism Act of banned any party subscribing to Communism. The act defined Communism and its aims so sweepingly that anyone who opposed government policy risked being labelled as a Communist. Since the law specifically stated that Communism aimed to disrupt racial harmony, it was frequently used to gag opposition to apartheid.
Disorderly gatherings were banned, as were certain organisations that were deemed threatening to the government. The Bantu Authorities Act of created separate government structures for blacks and whites and was the first piece of legislation to support the government's plan of separate development in the bantustans. So-called "self—governing Bantu units" were proposed, which would have devolved administrative powers, with the promise later of autonomy and self-government.
It also abolished the seats of white representatives of black South Africans and removed from the rolls the few blacks still qualified to vote. The Bantu Investment Corporation Act of set up a mechanism to transfer capital to the homelands to create employment there. Legislation of allowed the government to stop industrial development in "white" cities and redirect such development to the "homelands".
It changed the status of blacks to citizens of one of the ten autonomous territories. The aim was to ensure a demographic majority of white people within South Africa by having all ten Bantustans achieve full independence. The government tightened pass laws compelling blacks to carry identity documents , to prevent the immigration of blacks from other countries.
To reside in a city, blacks had to be in employment there. Until women were for the most part excluded from these pass requirements, as attempts to introduce pass laws for women were met with fierce resistance. In , D. Strijdom , Malan's successor as Prime Minister, moved to strip voting rights from black and Coloured residents of the Cape Province.
In the Strijdom government increased the number of judges in the Appeal Court from five to 11, and appointed pro-Nationalist judges to fill the new places. The Senate Act was contested in the Supreme Court, but the recently enlarged Appeal Court, packed with government-supporting judges, upheld the act, and also the Act to remove Coloured voters. The law allowed Coloureds to elect four people to Parliament, but a law abolished those seats and stripped Coloureds of their right to vote.
Since Asians had never been allowed to vote, this resulted in whites being the sole enfranchised group. A study in the Journal of Politics suggests that disenfranchisement in South Africa had a significant negative impact on basic service delivery to the disenfranchised.
Before South Africa became a republic in , politics among white South Africans was typified by the division between the mainly Afrikaner pro-republic conservative and the largely English anti-republican liberal sentiments,  with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people.
Once South Africa became a republic, Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between people of British descent and the Afrikaners. The ethnic division would no longer be between Afrikaans and English speakers, but between blacks and whites. Most Afrikaners supported the notion of unanimity of white people to ensure their safety. White voters of British descent were divided. Many had opposed a republic, leading to a majority "no" vote in Natal.
Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent voting illustrated only a minor swell of support,  indicating that a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the white population.
Under the homeland system, the government attempted to divide South Africa and South West Africa into a number of separate states, each of which was supposed to develop into a separate nation-state for a different ethnic group.
Territorial separation was hardly a new institution. There were, for example, the "reserves" created under the British government in the nineteenth century. Under apartheid, 13 percent of the land was reserved for black homelands, a small amount relative to its total population, and generally in economically unproductive areas of the country.
The Tomlinson Commission of justified apartheid and the homeland system, but stated that additional land ought to be given to the homelands, a recommendation that was not carried out. When Verwoerd became Prime Minister in , the policy of "separate development" came into being, with the homeland structure as one of its cornerstones.
Verwoerd came to believe in the granting of independence to these homelands. The government justified its plans on the ostensible basis that " the government's policy is, therefore, not a policy of discrimination on the grounds of race or colour, but a policy of differentiation on the ground of nationhood, of different nations, granting to each self-determination within the borders of their homelands — hence this policy of separate development".
In the Promotion of Black Self-Government Act was passed, and border industries and the Bantu Investment Corporation were established to promote economic development and the provision of employment in or near the homelands.
Many black South Africans who had never resided in their identified homeland were forcibly removed from the cities to the homelands. The vision of a South Africa divided into multiple ethnostates appealed to the reform-minded Afrikaner intelligensia, and it provided a more coherent philosophical and moral framework for the National Party's policies, while also providing a veneer of intellectual respectability to the controversial policy of so-called baasskap.
In total, 20 homelands were allocated to ethnic groups, ten in South Africa proper and ten in South West Africa. Of these 20 homelands, 19 were classified as black, while one, Basterland , was set aside for a sub-group of Coloureds known as Basters , who are closely related to Afrikaners. Once a homeland was granted its nominal independence, its designated citizens had their South African citizenship revoked and replaced with citizenship in their homeland.
These people were then issued passports instead of passbooks. Citizens of the nominally autonomous homelands also had their South African citizenship circumscribed, meaning they were no longer legally considered South African.
Bantustans within the borders of South Africa and South West Africa were classified by degree of nominal self-rule: 6 were "non-self-governing", 10 were "self-governing", and 4 were "independent". In theory, self-governing Bantustans had control over many aspects of their internal functioning but were not yet sovereign nations. In reality, they had no significant economic infrastructure and with few exceptions encompassed swaths of disconnected territory.
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