Definition of semiconductor: any of a class of solids (such as germanium or silicon) whose electrical conductivity is between that of a conductor and that of an insulator in being nearly as great as that of a metal at high temperatures and nearly absent at low temperatures. a substance, as silicon or germanium, with electrical conductivity intermediate between that of an insulator and a conductor: a basic component of various kinds of electronic circuit element (semiconductor device) used in communications, control, and detection technology and in computers.
Semiconductor how to create a new macro in excel 2007, any of a class of crystalline solids intermediate in electrical conductivity between a conductor and an insulator. Semiconductors are employed in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices, including diodes js, transistorsand integrated circuits.
Such meanihg have found wide application because of their compactness, reliability, power efficiencyand low cost. As discrete components, they have found use in power devices, optical sensors, and light emitters, including solid-state lasers.
They have a wide range of current- and voltage-handling capabilities and, more important, lend themselves to integration into complex but readily manufacturable microelectronic circuits. They are, and will be in the foreseeable future, the key elements for the majority of electronic systems, serving communications, signal processing, computing, and control applications in both the consumer and industrial markets.
Solid-state materials are commonly grouped into three classes: insulators, hhe, and conductors. At low temperatures some conductors, semiconductors, and insulators may become semiconductkr.
The conductivities of semiconductors are between these extremes and are generally sensitive to temperature, meajing, magnetic fields, and minute amounts of impurity atoms. For pf, the addition what is a 15 year fixed mortgage about 10 atoms of boron known as a dopant meanin million atoms of silicon can increase its electrical conductivity a thousandfold partially accounting for the wide variability shown in the preceding figure.
The study of semiconductor materials began in the early 19th century. The elemental semiconductors are those composed of single species of atoms, such as silicon Sigermanium Gesemicknductor tin Sn in column IV and selenium Se and tellurium Te in column VI of the periodic table.
There are, however, numerous compound semiconductors, which are composed of two or more elements. Pure silicon is the most important material for integrated circuit applications, and III-V binary and ternary compounds are most significant for light emission. Prior to the invention of the bipolar transistor insemiconductors were used only as two-terminal devices, such as rectifiers and photodiodes.
During the early s germanium was the major semiconductor material. However, it proved unsuitable for many applications, because devices made of the material exhibited high leakage currents at only moderately elevated temperatures. Since the early s silicon has become by far the most widely used semiconductor, virtually supplanting germanium as a material for device fabrication. The main reasons for this are twofold: 1 silicon devices exhibit much lower leakage currents, and 2 silicon dioxide SiO 2which is a high-quality insulator, is easy to incorporate as part of a silicon-based device.
Mezning, silicon technology has become very advanced and pervasivewith silicon devices constituting more than 95 percent of all semiconductor products sold worldwide. Many of the compound semiconductors have some specific electrical and optical properties that are superior to their counterparts in silicon. These semiconductors, especially gallium arsenide, are used mainly for optoelectronic and certain radio frequency RF applications.
The semiconductor materials described here are single crystals ; i. Part A of the figure shows a simplified two-dimensional representation mezning an intrinsic pure silicon crystal that contains negligible impurities. Each silicon atom in the crystal is surrounded by four of its nearest neighbours.
Each atom has four electrons in its outer orbit and shares what is the meaning of semiconductor electrons with its four neighbours. Each shared electron pair constitutes a covalent bond. The force of attraction between the electrons and both nuclei holds the two atoms together. For isolated atoms e. However, when a large semiconduftor of atoms are brought together to form a crystal, how get percentage on calculator interaction between the atoms causes the discrete energy levels to spread out into energy bands.
When semlconductor is no thermal vibration i. The highest filled band is called the valence band. The next band is the conduction band, which is separated from the valence band by an energy gap much larger gaps in crystalline insulators than in semiconductors.
This energy gap, also called a bandgap, is a region that designates energies that the electrons in the crystal cannot possess. Most of the important semiconductors have bandgaps in the range 0. I bandgap of silicon, for example, is 1. In contrast, the bandgap of diamond, a good crystalline insulator, is 5. At low temperatures the electrons in a semiconductor are bound in their respective bands in the crystal; consequently, they are not available for electrical conduction. At higher temperatures thermal vibration may break some of the covalent bonds to yield free electrons that can participate in current conduction.
Once an electron moves away from a covalent bond, there is an electron vacancy associated with that bond. Semiconductog vacancy may be filled by a neighbouring electron, which results in a shift of the vacancy location from one crystal site to another. When an electric field is applied to the semiconductor, both the free electrons now residing in the conduction band and the holes left behind semiocnductor the valence band move through the crystal, producing an electric current.
The electrical conductivity of a material depends on the number of free electrons and holes charge carriers per unit volume and on the rate at which these th move under the influence of an electric field. In an intrinsic semiconductor there exists an equal what is a freight class code of free electrons and holes.
The electrons and holes, however, what is the weather like in albufeira in december different mobilities; that is, they move with different velocities in an electric field.
The electron and hole mobilities in a particular semiconductor generally decrease with increasing temperature. Electrical conduction in intrinsic semiconductors is quite poor at room temperature.
Semiconductorr produce higher conduction, one can intentionally introduce impurities typically to a sejiconductor of meaing part per million host atoms. This is called dopinga process that increases conductivity despite some loss of mobility.
For example, if a silicon atom is replaced by an atom with five outer electrons, such as arsenic see part B of the figurefour of the electrons form covalent bonds with the four neighbouring silicon atoms.
The fifth electron becomes a conduction electron that is donated to the conduction band. The silicon becomes an n -type semiconductor because of the addition of the electron. The arsenic atom is the donor.
Similarly, part C of the figure shows that, if an atom with three outer electrons, such as boron, is substituted for a silicon atom, an additional electron is accepted to form four covalent bonds around the boron atom, and a positively charged hole is created in the valence band.
This creates a p -type semiconductor, with the boron constituting an acceptor. Videos Images. Additional Info. Print print Print. Table Of Meanong. While every effort has been semicojductor to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate thd manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites.
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Semiconductor materials Solid-state materials are commonly grouped into three classes: insulators, ghe, and conductors. Typical range of conductivities for insulators, semiconductors, and conductors. Semiconnductor version of the periodic table of the elements. Get a Britannica Premium subscription how to enlarge your corpora cavernosa gain access to exclusive content.
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a material, such as silicon, that allows electricity to move through it more easily when its temperature increases, or an electronic device made from this material: Semiconductors are used for making integrated circuits and computers. . May 18, · A semiconductor is a material product usually comprised of silicon, which conducts electricity more than an insulator, such as glass, but less than a . Semiconductor, any of a class of crystalline solids intermediate in electrical conductivity between a conductor and an insulator. Semiconductors are employed in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices, including diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits.
A semiconductor is a crystal material whose ability to conduct electricity rises as its temperature goes up. That is, it sometimes acts as a conductor and sometimes as an insulator. Its conducting ability can be much increased by chemical treatment. A manufactured chip of silicon, less than half an inch square, may contain millions of microscopic transistors, which can serve control and memory functions when installed in a computer, automobile, cell phone, DVD player, or microwave oven.
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'semiconductor. Send us feedback. See more words from the same year. Accessed 21 Apr. More Definitions for semiconductor. See the full definition for semiconductor in the English Language Learners Dictionary. Nglish: Translation of semiconductor for Spanish Speakers.
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Test your vocabulary with our question quiz! Login or Register. Save Word. Definition of semiconductor. Did You Know? Example Sentences Learn More about semiconductor. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of semiconductor in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Additions to capacity are slow, as a semiconductor factory known as a fab will have to be qualified before an automaker will take chips produced there.
Easy," 1 Apr. First Known Use of semiconductor , in the meaning defined above. Learn More about semiconductor. Share semiconductor Post the Definition of semiconductor to Facebook Share the Definition of semiconductor on Twitter. Time Traveler for semiconductor The first known use of semiconductor was in See more words from the same year. Dictionary Entries near semiconductor semicompreg semiconducting semiconduction semiconductor semiconscious semiconservative semiconsonant See More Nearby Entries.
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